INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS
Acta Ophthalmologica (AO) is the official journal of the Serbian Association of Ophthalmologists. It publishes original research articles, news and comments related to clinical and experimental ophthalmology, optical physics, physiology of the eye, history of ophthalmology and related disciplines.
AO also publishes review articles, clinical reports, case studies of importance in ophthalmological practice, proceedings and short communications, reports from health care facilities, ophthalmic literature reviews, reports from scientific meetings and congresses at home and abroad, as well as other contributions relevant to the development of ophthalmology in our country.
Acta Ophthalmologica (AO) journal publishes original research articles, previously unpublished, and not under consideration by any other publisher. Upon recommendation of Editorial Board, the Editor-in-Chief selects the most significant articles to be published in each issue. All papers published in this journal should follow the propositions of AO journal. Submitted manuscripts that are not consistent with the propositions, along with remarks and suggestions are sent to the author(s) for final revision. If manuscripts are still not prepared in accordance with the instructions and propositions, they will not be considered further.
Positive reviews are required before articles are considered for publishing in AO journal. The Editorial Board identifies appropriate reviewers selected on the basis of their expert knowledge in ophthalmology. Manuscripts are sent for formal review, typically to two reviewers, but sometimes more. Reviewers remain anonymous, independent and autonomous. The authors of the articles are the ones responsible for credibility of information and authorship.
Authors submitting articles are requested to submit them in paper form in three copies of their manuscript to the editor by registered mail to the following address:
The Pasteur Institute, Bulevar dr Zorana Đinđića 50, 18 000 Niš, Serbia
For mailing articles use a business-sized envelope without folding it, together with a cover letter and enclosed certification form signed by all the authors stating that the article has not been published previously elsewhere. All illustrations (graphs, figures, tables, etc.) should be enclosed with each copy. Authors should keep an exact copy of their manuscript and illustrations for future reference.
The papers with all the attachments in separate files are also to be submitted in electronic form, together with a CD or by e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Only computer printing is acceptable for the typescript of manuscript copies.
The format for the typescript is A4 white paper, typed on one side only, double-spaced, 30 lines per page, 70 characters/line (about 2000 characters per page). Authors are kindly requested to use the font type Times New Roman 12-point, 1.5 line spacing. Page formatting: left margin 3 cm, right margin 2 cm. Each page is numbered consecutively, including the title page, in Arabic numerals in the upper right-hand corner.
In the text itself the author should clearly mark the place for insertion of figures, graphs, tables and other supplemental materials, or they may be embedded into the manuscript document, although the AO journal reserves the right to print them from separately submitted files to meet specifications for publication. References from literature data are cited in the text body and marked in Arabic numerals inside a parenthesis (e.g. (2)) and thus incorporated into a consecutive list of references at the end of the paper.
Papers should be clear, concise, and written in English or Serbian. Excessive use of abbreviations should be avoided. Abbreviations should be used only when the full term is very long and used often. They are introduced in parentheses and defined when first used in the text, for instance, gas permeable contact lenses (GP). Later in the text only abbreviations are used. It is not allowed to abbreviate the names of signs and symptoms of a disease, anatomical and histological characteristics, in order to avoid confusion and not to obscure the structural meaning of the text. It is mandatory to express all measurements in terms of the Standard International System of Units (SI) and internationally accepted terms. Only generic names are used in referring to drugs. The correct names of devices, apparatus and equipment should be used along with manufacturer’s name in parentheses.
Preparation of manuscript
Original manuscript submitted for publishing should include: the Title page, the Abstract and key words in the language the manuscript is written in, Introduction, Material & Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, References, and Summary written in both English and Serbian. If the manuscript is in German or French, it should include the Abstract and key words in corresponding language, as well as in English and Serbian.
Title page is the first page of a research article that should carry: a) article title (concise and informative); b) full name(s) of the author(s); c) full name(s) of institution(s) where the research was conducted and to which the work should be attributed; d) full name, address, phone number and e-mail of a corresponding author.
If authors belong to several different institutions, the order of authorship should be reflected by using superscripted digits. Identical numbers in superscript should follow the authors’ names and precede the institution names.
The second page should carry only the title for original paper, abstract and key words without names of author(s) and .institution(s). Abstract is written in corresponding language of the article. The main abstract should be maximum 150 words emphasizing the purpose, significant new results, original contributions and conclusion. Below the abstract authors should provide 3 to 6 key words that assist indexers in cross-indexing the article.
Body of research article is divided into following sections:
Introduction: it should clearly state the purpose and significance of the research. The context of earlier experiences, statements and results should be supported by appropriate references (special attention will be paid to brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literature available - the latest foreign, as well as domestic literature). The Introduction should conclude with a brief and clear statement of what the aim of the paper or the study is, as the topic sentence of the next paragraph.
Material/Subjects and Methods: this section should contain precise and detailed information on materials and methodology (experimental animals, outpatients, inpatients, prospective study, a retrograde analysis of data revealed by anamnesis, laboratory study, epidemiological research, etc.). Animal experiments and prospective studies with patients or healthy volunteers must be in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice and internationally accepted documents and conventions (the Helsinki Convention - World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki, adopted October 2000). The manuscript should include the statement that the experiments and studies have been approved by the appropriate ethical committee. An integral part of this section is statistical data analysis. Statistical methods used during the analysis should be stated briefly with reference to appropriate literature, but new methods should be described with justification.
Results: this section includes a summary of collected data and analyses in a clear and logical manner. Most data should be presented in figures, tables, graphs and other forms of illustrations, rather than in the main body of the text. The most important observations and statistical significance should be emphasised or summarised. The methodology used and the results obtained should be presented in a way as to provide their confidentiality.
Discussion: in this section the results are interpreted and evaluated, put in the context of existing literature, compared and contrasted with other authors’ results, hypotheses and theories and put in the light of other studies reported in literature dealing with the same or related subject. The importance and assessment of the outcome significance for future research and clinical practice should be explained in this section, as well as limitations and dilemmas if any. New approaches and theories can be established only if strongly supported by the results.
Conclusion: each article should comprise conclusion chapter written in a short, clear and educational manner. Only those conclusions that stem directly from clearly defined aims of the paper, the results of the study and their interpretation should be stated. Unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data are not allowed and should be avoided.
Specific article types (reviews, case reports; descriptions of history of medicine, or surgery techniques) may need to be formatted differently, but manuscript organization should be in accordance with AO journal propositions. For example, in a case report instead of “Materials and Method” section there will be “Case Presentation” section; in describing a surgery technique there will be “Surgery technique” section.
Literature: references cited in the manuscript should be listed in a separate section and identified in the text by sequential Arabic numerals and respective ordering within the list. References are written in the Vancouver Convention style.
Articles in Journal
1. Standard journal article
Only first six authors should be listed. If the number exceeds six, list only the first six followed by et al. if the reference is in English, and i sar. if the reference is in Serbian.
Vega KJ, Pina I, Krevsky B. Heart transplantation is associated with an increased risk for pancreatobiliary disease. Ann Intern Med 1996; 124(11):980-3.
Parkin DM, Clayton D, Black RJ, Masuyer E, Friedl HP, Ivanov E, et al. Childhood—leukaemia in Europe after Chernobyl: 5 year follow-up. Br J Cancer 1996;73:1006-12.
2. Institution as author:
The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Clinical exercise stress testing. Safety and performance guidelines. Med J Aust 1996;164:282-4.
3. No author given:
Cancer in South Africa (editorial). S Afr Med J 1994;84:15.
4. Volume with Supplement:
Shen HM, Zhang QF. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102 Suppl 1:275-82.
5. Supplement numbers:
Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women's psychological reactions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol 1996;23(1 Suppl 2):89-97.
6. Volume with part:
Ozben T, Nacitarhan S, Tuncer N. Plasma and urine sialic acid in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Clin Biochem 1995;32(Pt 3):303-6.
7. Issue with part:
Poole GH, Mills SM. One hundred consecutive cases of flap lacerations of the leg in ageing patients. N Z Med J 1994;107(986 Pt 1):377-8.
8. Issue with no volume:
Turan I, Wredmark T, Fellander-Tsai L. Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Orthop 1995;(320):110-4.
9. No issue no volume:
Browell DA, Lennard TW. Immunologic status of the cancer patient and the effects of blood transfusion on antitumor responses. Curr Opin Gen Surg 1993:325-33.
10. Type of article indicated as needed (abstract, preliminary reports):
Enzensberger W, Fischer PA. Metronome in Parkinson's disease (letter) Lancet 1996;347:1337.
Clement J, De Bock R. Hematological complications of hantavirus nephropathy (HVN) (abstract). Kidney Int 1992;42:1285.
Books and Monographs
Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.
12. Editor(s) as author(s):
Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.
13. Organization as author and publisher:
Institute of Medicine (US). Looking at the future of the Medicaid program. Washington: The Institute; 1992.
14. Chapter in a book:
15. Conference proceedings:
Kimura J, Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.
16. Conference paper:
Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1992. p. 1561-5.
17. Scientific or technical reports:
Smith P, Golladay K. Payment for durable medical equipment billed during skilled nursing facility stays. Final report. Dallas (TX): Dept. of Health and Human Services (US), Office of Evaluation and Inspections; 1994 Oct. Report No.: HHSIGOEI69200860.
Field MJ, Tranquada RE, Feasley JC, editors. Health services research: work force and educational issues. Washington: National Academy Press; 1995. Contract No.: AHCPR282942008. Sponsored by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.
18. Theses and doctoral dissertations:
Kaplan SJ. Post-hospital home health care: the elderly's access and utilization [dissertation]. St. Louis (MO): Washington Univ.; 1995.
19. In press:
Leshner AI. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine addiction. N Engl J Med. In press 1996.
20. Journal article in electronic format:
Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis (serial online) 1995 Jan-Mar “cited 1996 Jun 5”; 1(1)(24 screens). Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm
22. Monograph in electronic format:
CDI, clinical dermatology illustrated (monograph on CD-ROM). Reeves JRT, Maibach H. CMEA Multimedia Group, producers. 2nd ed. Version 2.0. San Diego: CMEA; 1995.
23. Computer file:
Hemodynamics III: the ups and downs of hemodynamics (computer program). Version 2.2. Orlando (FL): Computerized Educational Systems; 1993.
The last page contains the full title, full name(s) of author(s), full name of institution(s) where the article was written or research conducted, abstract and key words in English if the manuscript has been presented in Serbian (and vice versa). Below the abstract authors should provide 3 to 6 key words in English that assist indexers in cross-indexing the article.
Authors’ names are not transcribed, but English translation is required for the names of institutions. Authors are strongly encouraged to have this part of manuscript proofread by a language expert.
Enclosures/Additions in the form of texts, tables and illustrations (diagrams, graphs, photos, etc) should not be inserted in the article body, but prepared and submitted on separate electronic files or separate sheets marked in the upper left-hand corner as “Enclosure” with Arabic numeral. Each table and illustration should bear Arabic numeral following the order of appearance in the text (for instance, Table 1, Graph 1, etc) and each should be given a short title. Short explanations and abbreviations are stated in footnotes using the following symbols: *, **, ***, #, ##, ###, … etc. Photos should be sharp and of postcard format (20x25 cm). Write the labels on the back of the photos with a ball pen in the upper left-hand corner as they appear in the text (Figure 1, Figure 2 and so on). Identify each photograph with the name of the first author and the title of the article also on the back of illustration. Detailed explanation of the photo should be given on appropriate additional sheet along with the title, number of the photo consistent with the text and legends with short explanations or footnotes. If a table or illustration has already been published, the legend must give full credit to the original source of publication and a written approval should be submitted in case the material is copyright protected. If a photograph shows a patient who can be recognized, his/her written approval should also be submitted; otherwise recognisable body parts should be blackened so that the patient cannot be identified by readership. Graphic additions can be made by any graphic programme, while the pictures should be saved in .jpg format with 300dpi resolution (original size). Graphic additions should be submitted as separate files, and not inserted in the Word document. Tables and graphs are most desirable in Excel for Windows version 97 or more recent ones. Colour graphics should be avoided.
The Editorial Board is not obliged to publish papers in order in which they are submitted. If the authorship requirements are not met, the paper will be sent back to the author(s) for final revision. Manuscripts accepted for publication are not returned to authors and are archived.
Members of Editorial Board would like to thank all the future authors in advance for their scientific cooperation and wish them all much success.